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Loss of an Eye

  • Anophthalmia is a medical term used to illustrate {the} absence of {the} globe and ocular tissue from {the} orbit.
  • This was originally reported more than 400 years ago, yet it is only recently that significant reconstructive options became available.
  • There are numerous reasons why one might lose an eye.
  • Surgeries which result in anophthalmos

 

 

 There are three classifications for this condition:

  • Primary anophthalmia is a complete absence of eye tissue due to a failure of {the} part of {the} brain that forms {the} eye.
  • Secondary anophthalmia {the} eye starts to develop and for some reason stops, leaving {the} infant with only residual eye tissue or extremely small eyes which can only be seen under close examination.
  • Degenerative anophthalmia {the} eye started to form and, for some reason, degenerated. One reason for this occurring could be a lack of blood supply to {the} eye.

Etiology

  1. Anophthalmia ( A medical term used to illustrate {the} absence of {the} globe and ocular tissue from {the} orbit ) can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired later in life. Congenital anophthalmia can occur alone or along with other birth defects. Cases of Anophthalmia might possibly result from inherited genetic mutations, sporadic genetic mutations, chromosome abnormalities, prenatal environmental insult or unknown.
  2. True or primary anophthalmos is very rare. Only when there is complete absence of {the} ocular tissue within {the} orbit can {the} diagnosis of true anophthalmos be made. Extreme microphthalmos is seen more commonly. In this condition, a very small globe is present within {the} orbital soft tissue, which is not visible on initial examination.
  3. Anophthalmia and microphthalmia might possibly occur secondary to {the} arrest of development of {the} eye at various stages of growth of {the} optic vesicle. It is important to recognize microphthalmia because {the} development of {the} orbital region, as well as {the} lids and fornices, is dependent on {the} presence of a normal-sized eye in utero. Anophthalmia is often a clinical characteristic of Trisomy 13 which is a Gross Chromosomal Abnormality.

     (Anophthalmia is very rare but {the} exact incidence is unknown. One report from a prospective study of 50,000 newborns found an incidence of microphthalmia of 0.22 per 1,000 live births)
  • trauma
  • infection
  • tumor (such as retinoblastoma, choroidal malignant melanoma)
  • advanced ocular disease (corneal disease, advanced resistant glaucoma)

Demographics

Blunt Orbital Trauma leading to zygoma, orbital floor fracture and intraocular wood.

Blunt Orbital Trauma leading to zygoma, orbital floor fracture and intraocular wood. TRAUMA-TREEBRANCH--BRANCH.jpg (27861 bytes)

 

This patient was stuck by a large tree branch and sustained two full thickness puncture wounds: one below {the} eyebrow and one

 

Radiologic Studies

 

Radiologic Studies

 

Radiologic Studies

 

Radiologic Studies

 

Intra-Operative Photographs

 

TRAUMA-TREEBRANCH-FLOOR.JPG (59850 bytes)

 

TRAUMA-TREEBRANCH-ZYG-PL.JPG (68868 bytes)